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Published: Kem. Ind. 72 (1-2) (2023) 75–85
Paper reference number: KUI-38/2022
Paper type: Review
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Carbon Paste Electrodes Renaissance; Modifications and Applications for Potentiometric Determination of Pharmaceuticals

J. Radić, M. Bralić and M. Kolar


The development of carbon paste electrodes in the 1970s generated considerable interest in the scientific community, because they offered several advantages over conventional membrane electrodes. At the beginning of the new millennium, the use of carbon nanomaterials as a new trend in their development gave additional impetus. After CPEs were successfully developed for potentiometric determination of more than 70 chemical elements, these electrodes gained additional interest for pharmaceutical and medical applications. This paper reviews the scientific literature of the last decade related to the development of CPEs for the quantitative determination of active pharmaceutical ingredients and their application in real samples.

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carbon paste electrodes, modifications, potentiometry, active pharmaceutical ingredients