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https://doi.org/10.15255/KUI.2019.025
Published: Kem. Ind. 68 (11-12) (2019) 609–614
Paper reference number: KUI-25/2019
Paper type: Professional paper / Chemistry in Teaching
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How to Make Citric Acid and Sugar Crystals

M. Sikirica

Abstract

Middle school students almost regularly perform experiments of crystallization of copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate and kitchen salt. Copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate is poisonous and harmful to the environment, and larger crystals of kitchen salt are difficult to obtain. Instead of experimenting with the crystallization of copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate and kitchen salt, it is better to carry out crystallization of citric acid and common (table) sugar. These materials are inexpensive, easily accessible, biodegradable, and not environmentally hazardous.


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Keywords

chemical education, citric acid, sugar, experiment, crystal, crystallization, crystal lattice, crystal structure, unit cell, symmetry