Published: Kem. Ind. 69 (11-12) (2020) 659–664
Paper reference number: KUI-13/2019
Paper type: Professional paper
Download paper: PDF
Special Theory of Relativity in Chemistry
Application of Einsteinʹs special theory of relativity in chemistry seems to be superfluous; energies are too low. The average velocity of electron in hydrogen atom (1s1) is 1/135 c, making its actual mass only 26,6 ppm larger than the rest of the mass. However, for heavier elements (about Z > 60), relativistic effects have to be taken into account and, more than that, many phenomena cannot be explained without ascribing a new mass to electrons, in accordance with Einsteinʹs theory. In this paper, such phenomena are described: colour of metallic gold and Bi and Pb compounds, low melting point of mercury, contraction of Ln-X bond of lanthanoide trihalides, voltage of lead-acid and Zn/HgO battery, and the shape of gold clusters. In addition, essentials of Einsteinʹs theory and quantum chemistry are presented, as well as the problems concerning the validity of Lavoisierʹs law.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
chemical education, periodic system of elements, atomic orbitals, colour of gold, lead-acid battery, atomic orbitals