Published: CABEQ 36 (2) (2022) 91-116
Paper type: Review
A. Salkunić, J. Vuković and S. Smiljanić
Phosphorus is essential to the growth of living organisms, and, therefore, its presence is considered vital for all forms of life. Research shows that phosphate rock reserves are reducing. Phosphate rock is used as raw material for the production of phosphate-based fertilizers, and its lack of supply could have adverse effects on the global food supply. New resources that can be a potential replacement for phosphate rock in the production of fertilizers and other phosphorus-containing substances are investigated. This paper provides an overview of technology implementations, methods, and processes, as well as the latest achievements in the field of phosphorus recovery from waste streams. Different methods of phosphorus regeneration from sewage sludge and solid waste, and forms of phosphate regeneration are described. In addition, an overview of the following methods is given: nanonucleation, adsorption and ion exchange, solar evaporation, biological assimilation of P, and membrane technologies.
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phosphorus, recovery, waste streams, phosphorus fertilizers