Published: CABEQ 36 (2) (2022) 159–166
Paper type: Original Scientific Paper

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Byproduct from Triphala Extraction as Tannin and Rutin Sources for Production of Gallic Acid, Isoquercetin and Quercetin by Solid-State Fermentation

T. Chysirichote and P. Pakaweerachat

Byproduct from Triphala extraction process (BTP) was studied as a substrate for gallic acid, isoquercetin and quercetin production by Aspergillus niger fermentation in this research. The results showed that BTP was a good source of tannin and rutin. Nevertheless, the activity of A. niger on BTP as a sole substrate was very low. Supplementing nitrogen sources was found to be a key to enhancing conversion of tannin to gallic acid, and rutin to isoquercetin or isoquercetin and quercetin. BTP with 0.75 % sodium nitrate was suggested to be an optimal supplemented nitrogen source for the production of gallic acid and isoquercetin in this research, which yielded the highest contents of 61.6±2.16 mg g–1 DS and 3.27±0.29 mg g–1 DS, respectively. In addition, the highest extraction yields of gallic acid, isoquercetin and quercetin were obtained by an ultrasound-assisted extraction using methanol as an extraction solvent as 12.24±2.12 mg g–1 DS which was around 0.5 time higher than the one without ultrasound-assisted extraction (8.84±1.12 mg g–1 DS).

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triphala, solid-state fermentation, gallic acid, isoquercetin, extraction