Published: CABEQ 25 (2) (2011) 255–266
Paper type: Review

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Design Aspects of Bioreactors for Solid-state Fermentation: A Review

H. K. Q. Ali and M. M. D. Zulkali

Solid-state fermentation has gained renewed attention, not only from researchers but also from industries, due to several advantages over submerged fermentations. This is partly because solid-state fermentation has lower energy requirements, higher yields, produces less wastewater with less risk of bacterial contamination, and partly because of environmental concerns regarding the disposal of solid wastes. This paper reviews different types of bioreactors that have been used for various purposes and the recent process developments in solid-state fermentation.

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solid-state fermentation, classification of bioreactors, general features